I was fascinated by this recent story of a piece of a previous sun, was found in a 4.5 billion year old meteorite associated with our solar system. Isotopic evidence, quite complex, suggests that there might have been up to three solar supernova cycles in the region of our solar sun.
Of course the elements we are (physically) composed of (at least the ones that are not Hydrogen and Helium) mostly had their origin in previous solar masses. Our elemental hydrogen and helium mostly come from the big-bang, these are truly ancient. The solar cycle and supernova-based building of heavy elements, like the element Iron, which we require small amounts of, for example, is called supernova nucleosynthesis, here is the Wiki page.
To understand nucleosynthesis you need to review nuclear decay, one of the greatest additions to scientific understand of our universe. Here is the Wiki page.
The history of the sun is fascinating. For example, interesting factoid: the sunlight we see take about 8.32 minutes to travel from the solar surface to earth, but the photons take about 100,000 years to travel from where they are formed (deep within the sun) to the solar surface. We are observing old photons illuminating our planet. It turns out that understanding neutrino production and flux are key to understanding the deep internal structure of the sun. They blast from this region deep within the sun and immediately are observable outside of it. Here is the Wiki page that describes the standard Solar model and neutrino flux at the earth.
Getting interested in the sun? Here is the Wiki page.
Hooked on all this? Want near real-time Solar Images 24-7? NASA has you covered. Here is their excellent SOHO (Solar and Heliosphere Observatory) page.